School of Science Technology and Health

Publication Date



The world has been embroiled in a deadly and volatile public health crisis. The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as a pandemic, has been rapidly affecting nations throughout the world with such ferocity that governments and their public health authorities have been forced to take drastic measures to contain the spread. Yet, despite the aggressive preventative measures in place, COVID-19 has propagated exponentially throughout the world. In response, we conducted an epidemiological study evaluating cumulative incidence, incidence rate, and mortality rate of COVID-19 to better understand the potential modes of disease select countries experiencing a high burden of the disease. Currently, the accepted mode of disease transmission is by respiratory droplets containing the virus. Here we provide epidemiological data in conjunction with molecular mechanisms of this Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome- Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and explain the possible alternative modes of disease transmission for COVID-19. Results from this investigation showed that despite aggressive droplet precautionary measures are needed to slow the spread of COVID-19.


COVID-19; Coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; Fomites; Pandemic; Droplets;


the authors


This is a pre-copy-editing, author-produced PDF of an article that has not yet been accepted for publication. It is going through a peer review process.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.